A Level Biology: Lesson 29

The Structure of ATP

Task 1. Check Where this Lesson fits into your Exam Specification!

Task 2. Watch the Revision Notes Lesson in Full.

00:00 Introduction

00:40 Learning Outcomes

01:24 Introduction - living organisms need energy!

01:48 The ATP-ADP Cycle

03:31 ATP is NOT Energy!

03:58 ATP is a nucleotide... (AMP, ADP and ATP)

05:15 ATP is Hydrolysed...

05:35 ATP Stores "Chemical Energy" in its Phosphate bonds...

06:04 ATP diffuses Within the Cell...

06:31ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate) can be re-synthesised! (phosphorylation).

07:05 Remember that phosphorylation of ADP into ATP is a Condensation reaction.

07:36 chemical energy can be coupled...

07:56 All living organisms need energy.

08:08 Summary of the important Properties of ATP.


Check Your Spec!

★ AQA Specification Reference: - 3.1.6 ATP information-carrying molecules. A single molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide derivative and is formed from a molecule of ribose, a molecule of adenine and three phosphate groups. Hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate group (Pi) is catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase. •• The hydrolysis of ATP can be coupled to energy-requiring reactions within cells. •• The inorganic phosphate released during the hydrolysis of ATP can be used to phosphorylate other compounds, often making them more reactive. ATP is re-synthesised by the condensation of ADP and Pi. This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATP synthase during photosynthesis, or during respiration.


★ CIE Specification Reference: - 6 Nucleic acids and protein synthesis - a) describe the structure of nucleotides, including the phosphorylated nucleotide ATP. 12 Energy and respiration - 12.1 Energy. ATP is the universal energy currency as it provides the immediate source of energy for cellular processes. a) outline the need for energy in living organisms, as illustrated by anabolic reactions, such as DNA replication and protein synthesis, active transport, movement and the maintenance of body temperature. b) describe the features of ATP that make it suitable as the universal energy currency.


★ Edexcel (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - Topic 2: Genes and Health. 2.4 i) Understand the role of ATP as an immediate source of energy). Topic 5: On the Wild Side. 5.6 Understand how phosphorylation of ADP requires energy and that hydrolysis of ATP provides an immediate supply of energy for biological processes.


★ Edexcel (Biology B) Specification Reference: - Topic 5: Energy for Biological Processes. Know that cellular respiration yields ATP which is used as a source of energy. for metabolic reactions, and the process also generates heat.


★ OCR (Biology A) Specification Reference: - 2.1.3 Nucleotides and nucleic acids. c) the structure of ADP and ATP as phosphorylated nucleotides, comprising a pentose sugar (ribose), a nitrogenous base (adenine) and inorganic phosphates. 5.2.2 Respiration – a) ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes - the need for cellular respiration; To include examples of why plants, animals and microorganisms need to respire (suitable examples could include active transport and an outline of named metabolic reactions).


★ OCR (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 2.1.4 Nucleic acids – b) the structure of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as phosphorylated nucleotides. 4: Energy, reproduction and populations - the role of ATP as an immediate source of energy for biological processes and the biochemical pathways of cellular respiration that generate ATP.


★ WJEC Specification Reference: - Basic Biochemistry and Cell Organisation 5. Nucleic acids and their functions. (a) the structure of nucleotides (pentose sugar, phosphate, organic base). (b) the importance of chemical energy in biological processes. (c) the central role of ATP as an energy carrier and its use in the liberation of energy for cellular activity. (d) the structure of ATP. (a2) UNIT 3 ENERGY, HOMEOSTASIS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. 1. The importance of ATP - the only source of immediate energy within the cell for many biological processes, referred to as the ‘universal energy currency’.


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