A Level Biology Revision Lesson 358: 

Genetic Fingerprinting using (VNTRs)

Task 1. Check Where this Lesson fits into your Exam Specification!

Task 2. Watch the Revision Notes Lesson in Full.

00:00 Introduction | Learning Outcomes.

00:39 Genomes.

01:18 VNTR a.k.a Mini-satellite sequences and restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) 01:38 Remember - Chromosomes are homologous...

01:45 How VNTRs are useful...

03:53 - Electrophoresis / Paternity Testing.

05:58 1 in 10 billion!

06:52 DNA Fingerprinting uses PCR and VNTRs...

07:39 Using VNTRs and Electrophoresis in Forensic Science...

08:05 The "suspects" DNA profiles are Unique.

08:30 PCR and VNTRs have many uses...

09:23 Calculating the number of nucleotides in a VNTR.


Check Your Spec!

AQA A Level Biology Specification Reference: Genetic fingerprinting (A-level only).  An organism’s genome contains many variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). The probability of two individuals having the same VNTRs is very low. The technique of genetic fingerprinting in analysing DNA fragments that have been cloned by PCR, and its use in determining genetic relationships and in determining the genetic variability within a population. The use of genetic fingerprinting in the fields of forensic science, medical diagnosis, animal and plant breeding. Students should be able to: Explain the biological principles that underpin genetic fingerprinting techniques. Interpret data showing the results of gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments. Explain why scientists might use genetic fingerprinting in the fields of forensic science, medical diagnosis, animal and plant breeding.


CIE A Level Biology Specification Reference: -  19.1 Principles of genetic technology. Describe and explain how gel electrophoresis is used to analyse proteins and nucleic acids, and to distinguish between the alleles of a gene (limited to the separation of polypeptides and the separation of DNA fragments cut with restriction endonucleases). 19.2 Genetic technology applied to medicine outline the use of PCR and DNA testing in forensic medicine and criminal investigations.


Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - Topic 6: Immunity, Infection and Forensics. 6.3 Know how DNA profiling is used for identification and determining genetic relationships between organisms (plants and animals).


Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: -  7.1 Using gene sequencing. ii Understand how PCR can be used to amplify DNA samples, and how these samples can be used: in forensic science, to identify criminals and to test paternity, using DNA profiling.


OCR A Level Biology (Biology A) Specification Reference: -  6.1.3 Manipulating genomes. The principles of DNA sequencing and the development of new DNA sequencing techniques. The principles of DNA profiling and its uses, to include forensics and analysis of disease risk. the principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application in DNA analysis. the principles and uses of electrophoresis for separating nucleic acid fragments or proteins.


OCR A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies. The principles and uses of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The nature and use VNTRs (variable number tandem repeats) in human genome studies. To include forensics, disease pre-disposition, ethnic migration, paternity testing, selection for clinical trials.


WJEC A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 7. Application of reproduction and genetics. This topic covers gene technology and its applications, including the sequencing of genomes, the use of PCR and recombinant DNA technology. Learners should be able to demonstrate and apply their knowledge and understanding of: the use of PCR and electrophoresis to produce a genetic fingerprint; the forensic use of genetic fingerprinting.

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