A Level Biology -

Recombinant DNA and the Central Dogma of Biology

 

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00:00 Intro | Learning outcomes

00:40 Recombinant DNA - definition

01:15 The making of Recombinant DNA make use of particular enzymes.

01:53 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

02:40 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology needs updating...

03:06 Reverse Transcriptase

03:27 The "updated" Central Dogma of Biology

04:07 Why you need to this!

05:18 Define Transgenic organism.

The central dogma of biology | What is recombinant DNA? A3 Poster PDF for A Level Biology

A Level Biology - Gene Technologies: Making cDNA using the Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase.

 

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A Level Biology Gene Technologies: Making cDNA using the Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase.

00:00 Intro | Learning outcomes

00:32 in this lesson we will focus on how DNA clones called cDNA can be produced using reverse transcriptase.

00:55 Remember that retroviruses (like HIV) have the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

01:22 mRNA is required to direct the synthesis of a polypeptide chain

02:26 Using Reverse transcriptase - Step 1.

02:39 Using Reverse transcriptase - Step 2.

02:48 Using Reverse transcriptase - Step 3.

02:56 Using Reverse transcriptase - Step 4.

03:09 Using Reverse transcriptase - Step 5.

03:28 the cDNA can be inserted into viral vectors or plasmid.

03:58 Exam Style Q and A (1)

04:37 Exam Style Q and A (2)

5:34 Exam Style Q and A (3)

Gene Technologies Making cDNA using the Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase A3 Poster PDF for A Level Biology

A Level Biology - Gene Technologies:

The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

 

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A Level Biology the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

00:00 Introduction | Learning Outcomes

00:56 The Polymerase Chain Reaction

01:46 Why is PCR called PCR? / 1. "Polymerase"

02:00 "Chain Reaction"

02:21 "In Vitro"

02:48 What are Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enzymes?

03:30 "1985" Kary Mullis

04:05 Primers and annealing

04:38 What you need to know for your A level exams...

05:00 PCR - Step 1. Denaturation

05:30 PCR - Step 2. Annealing

05:50 PCR - Step 3. Polymerisation

06:23 PCR Amplifies DNA Exponentially with each cycle.

07:02 Applications of PCR (environmental, medical and forensic).

Amplifying DNA In Vitro (PCR) Download The Polymerase Chain Reaction Revision notes with knowledge check Q and A
Gene Technologies The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) A3 Poster PDF for A Level Biology

A Level Biology - Gene Technologies DNA Profiling |

Genetic Fingerprinting using (VNTRs)

 

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00:00 Introduction | Learning Outcomes.

00:39 Genomes.

01:18 VNTR a.k.a Mini-satellite sequences and restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) 01:38 Remember - Chromosomes are homologous...

01:45 How VNTRs are useful...

03:53 - Electrophoresis / Paternity Testing.

05:58 1 in 10 billion!

06:52 DNA Fingerprinting uses PCR and VNTRs...

07:39 Using VNTRs and Electrophoresis in Forensic Science...

08:05 The "suspects" DNA profiles are Unique.

08:30 PCR and VNTRs have many uses...

09:23 Calculating the number of nucleotides in a VNTR.

Gene Technologies DNA Profiling / Genetic fingerprinting using variable tandem repeats (VNTR) A3 Poster PDF for A Level Biology

A Level Biology - Gel Electrophoresis

 

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A Level Biology - Gel Electrophoresis.

 

00:00 Learning Outcomes

00:22 What is Gel Electrophoresis?

01:00 How does Gel Electrophoresis work?

02:50 Small DNA fragments migrate further an quicker...

03:15 Remember DNA is mixed with a loading dye...

03:49 Watch VNTRs (Genetic fingerprinting next)

04:14 Exam style Q and A (1). 

04:40 Exam style Q and A (2).

Gene Technologies Gel Electrophoresis A3 Poster PDF for A Level Biology
 
Check Your Exam Specification

AQA A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 3.8.4.1 Recombinant DNA technology (A-level only). Recombinant DNA technology involves the transfer of fragments of DNA from one organism, or species, to another. Since the genetic code is universal, as are transcription and translation mechanisms, the transferred DNA can be translated within cells of the recipient (transgenic) organism. Interpret information relating to the use of recombinant DNA technology.

 

CIE A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 19.1 Principles of genetic Technology: a) define the term recombinant DNA. b) explain that genetic engineering involves the extraction of genes from one organism, or the synthesis of genes, in order to place them in another organism (of the same or another species) such that the receiving organism expresses the gene product.

 

Edexcel A Level Biology  (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - N/A

 

Edexcel A Level Biology  (Biology B) Specification Reference: - Topic 7: Modern Genetics. 7.4 Gene technology: Understand how recombinant DNA can be produced.

 

OCR A Level Biology  (Biology A) Specification Reference: - 6.1.3 Manipulating genomes (the principles of genetic engineering - Recombinant DNA).

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies.

 

WJEC A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 7. Application of reproduction and genetics.

AQA A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 3.8.4.1 Recombinant DNA technology (A-level only). Recombinant DNA technology involves the transfer of fragments of DNA from one organism, or species, to another. Since the genetic code is universal, as are transcription and translation mechanisms, the transferred DNA can be translated within cells of the recipient (transgenic) organism. Fragments of DNA can be produced by: Conversion of mRNA to complementary DNA (cDNA), using reverse transcriptase.

 

CIE A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 19.1 Principles of genetic Technology: h) explain the role of reverse transcriptase in genetic engineering.

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology A) Specification Reference: - 6.1.3 Manipulating genomes (f) the principles the principles of genetic engineering. To include the isolation of genes from one organism and the placing of these genes into another organism using suitable vectors. NOTE: cDNA and using reverse transcriptase is not specifically mentioned in the specification!

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies (b) To include the role of reverse transcriptase - example of human protein to include insulin.

★ Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) N/A

★ Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology B) N/A

★ WJEC A Level Biology N/A

AQA A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 3.8.4 Gene technologies. Fragments of DNA can be amplified by in vitro and in vivo techniques - The principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an in vitro method to amplify DNA fragments.

 

CIE A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 19.1 Principles of genetic technology. c) describe the principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone and amplify DNA (the role of Taq polymerase (the DNA Polymerase enzyme from the heat tolerant bacterium Thermus aquaticus) should be emphasised).

 

Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - Topic 6: Immunity, Infection and Forensics. 6.4 Know how DNA can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

 

Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - Topic 7: Modern Genetics. 7.1 Using gene sequencing. ii Understand how PCR can be used to amplify DNA samples, and how these samples can be used: e.g. to predict the amino acid sequence of proteins and possible links to genetically determined conditions, using gene sequencing / in forensic science, to identify criminals and to test paternity, using DNA profiling.

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology A) Specification Reference: - 6.1.3 Manipulating genomes. (d) the principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application in DNA analysis.

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies. The principles and uses of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). To include the use of PCR in amplifying DNA, the role of primers and Taq polymerase ((the DNA Polymerase enzyme from the heat tolerant bacterium Thermus aquaticus) in PCR.

 

WJEC A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 7. Application of reproduction and genetics. (d) the use of PCR and electrophoresis to produce a genetic fingerprint; the forensic use of genetic fingerprinting.

AQA A Level Biology Specification Reference:3.8.4.3 Genetic fingerprinting (A-level only).  An organism’s genome contains many variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). The probability of two individuals having the same VNTRs is very low. The technique of genetic fingerprinting in analysing DNA fragments that have been cloned by PCR, and its use in determining genetic relationships and in determining the genetic variability within a population. The use of genetic fingerprinting in the fields of forensic science, medical diagnosis, animal and plant breeding. Students should be able to: Explain the biological principles that underpin genetic fingerprinting techniques. Interpret data showing the results of gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments. Explain why scientists might use genetic fingerprinting in the fields of forensic science, medical diagnosis, animal and plant breeding.

 

CIE A Level Biology Specification Reference: -  19.1 Principles of genetic technology. Describe and explain how gel electrophoresis is used to analyse proteins and nucleic acids, and to distinguish between the alleles of a gene (limited to the separation of polypeptides and the separation of DNA fragments cut with restriction endonucleases). 19.2 Genetic technology applied to medicine outline the use of PCR and DNA testing in forensic medicine and criminal investigations.

 

Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - Topic 6: Immunity, Infection and Forensics. 6.3 Know how DNA profiling is used for identification and determining genetic relationships between organisms (plants and animals).

 

Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: -  7.1 Using gene sequencing. ii Understand how PCR can be used to amplify DNA samples, and how these samples can be used: in forensic science, to identify criminals and to test paternity, using DNA profiling.

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology A) Specification Reference: -  6.1.3 Manipulating genomes. The principles of DNA sequencing and the development of new DNA sequencing techniques. The principles of DNA profiling and its uses, to include forensics and analysis of disease risk. the principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application in DNA analysis. the principles and uses of electrophoresis for separating nucleic acid fragments or proteins.

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies. The principles and uses of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The nature and use VNTRs (variable number tandem repeats) in human genome studies. To include forensics, disease pre-disposition, ethnic migration, paternity testing, selection for clinical trials.

 

WJEC A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 7. Application of reproduction and genetics. This topic covers gene technology and its applications, including the sequencing of genomes, the use of PCR and recombinant DNA technology. Learners should be able to demonstrate and apply their knowledge and understanding of: the use of PCR and electrophoresis to produce a genetic fingerprint; the forensic use of genetic fingerprinting.

AQA A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 3.8.4.3 Genetic fingerprinting (A-level only). Students should be able to: interpret data showing the results of gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments.

 

CIE A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 19.1 Principles of genetic Technology: d) describe and explain how gel electrophoresis is used to analyse proteins and nucleic acids, and to distinguish between the alleles of a gene (limited to the separation of polypeptides and the separation of DNA fragments cut with restriction endonucleases)

 

Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - Topic 6: Immunity, Infection and Forensics. Use gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments of different length.

 

Edexcel A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - N/A. Note; Electrophoresis is NOT specifically mentioned in the spec. but understanding it is essential for Topic 7: Modern Genetics. 7.1 Using gene sequencing - in particular in forensic science, to identify criminals and to test paternity, using DNA profiling.

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology A) Specification Reference: - 6.1.3 Manipulating genomes (e) the principles and uses of electrophoresis for separating nucleic acid fragments or proteins

 

OCR A Level Biology (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies (d) the principles and uses of agarose gel electrophoresis.

 

WJEC A Level Biology Specification Reference: - 7. Application of reproduction and genetics: (d) the use of PCR and electrophoresis to produce a genetic fingerprint; the forensic use of genetic fingerprinting.

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