A Level Biology: Lesson 344.

Gene Technologies: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Task 1. Check Where this Lesson fits into your Exam Specification!

Task 2. Watch the Revision Notes Lesson in Full.

00:00 Introduction

00:40 Learning Outcomes

00:56 The Polymerase Chain Reaction

01:46 Why is PCR called PCR? / 1. "Polymerase"

02:00 "Chain Reaction"

02:21 "In Vitro"

02:48 What are Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enzymes?

03:30 "1985" Kary Mullis

04:05 Primers and annealing

04:38 What you need to know for your A-level exams...

05:00 PCR - Step 1. Denaturation

05:30 PCR - Step 2. Annealing

05:50 PCR - Step 3. Polymerisation

06:23 PCR Amplifies DNA Exponentially with each cycle.

07:02 Applications of PCR (environmental, medical and forensic).


Check Your Spec!

★ AQA Specification Reference: - 3.8.4 Gene technologies. Fragments of DNA can be amplified by in vitro and in vivo techniques - The principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an in vitro method to amplify DNA fragments.


★ CIE Specification Reference: - 19.1 Principles of genetic technology. c) describe the principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone and amplify DNA (the role of Taq polymerase (the DNA Polymerase enzyme from the heat tolerant bacterium Thermus aquaticus) should be emphasised).


★ Edexcel (Biology A – Salters-Nuffield) Specification Reference: - Topic 6: Immunity, Infection and Forensics. 6.4 Know how DNA can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).


★ Edexcel (Biology B) Specification Reference: - Topic 7: Modern Genetics. 7.1 Using gene sequencing. ii Understand how PCR can be used to amplify DNA samples, and how these samples can be used: e.g. to predict the amino acid sequence of proteins and possible links to genetically determined conditions, using gene sequencing / in forensic science, to identify criminals and to test paternity, using DNA profiling.


★ OCR (Biology A) Specification Reference: - 6.1.3 Manipulating genomes. (d) the principles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application in DNA analysis.


★ OCR (Biology B) Specification Reference: - 5.1.3 Gene technologies. The principles and uses of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). To include the use of PCR in amplifying DNA, the role of primers and Taq polymerase ((the DNA Polymerase enzyme from the heat tolerant bacterium Thermus aquaticus) in PCR.


★ WJEC Specification Reference: - 7. Application of reproduction and genetics. (d) the use of PCR and electrophoresis to produce a genetic fingerprint; the forensic use of genetic fingerprinting.


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