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A-Level Biology Lessons

The Biochemical basis of life: Phylogenetic trees and the 4 biological molecules you must know

Making and breaking Polymers: Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions


Monosaccharides and Disaccharides


Polysaccharides, Starch (Amylose & Amylopectin), Glycogen and Cellulose


Food Tests: -The Benedict's test for sugars


Food Tests: - The Iodine test for starch


Lipids: The Structure & Formation of Triglycerides.


Lipids: - The Properties of Triglycerides


Lipids: -Phospholipid structure and function


Lipids: - The Emulsion test for Lipids


Proteins: - Amino Acids structure, dipeptides and polypeptides


Proteins: -The 4 Levels of Protein structure


Proteins: - Protein shape and function. Enzymes & Antibodies



Food Tests: - The Biuret test for Proteins


Enzymes: - The basic properties of enzymes

Enzymes: - Models of enzyme action. Lock and Key V Induced Fit

Enzymes: - Enzymes Lower Activation Energy


Enzymes: - Factors affecting enzyme activity

Enzymes: - The basic properties of enzymes

Enzymes: - Models of enzyme action. Lock and Key V Induced Fit

Enzymes: - Enzymes Lower Activation Energy


Enzymes: - Factors affecting enzyme activity


Genetics | Nucleic acids: - Nucleotide Structure and Polynucleotides


Genetics | Nucleic acids: -DNA a brief history and the Structure of DNA


Genetics | Nucleic acids: -RNA Structure

Genetics | Nucleic acids: - The Structure and Function of mRNA and tRNA

Genetics | Nucleic acids: - Genes and non coding DNA


Adenosine Triphosphate - The Structure of ATP - "The ATP-ADP Cycle" and the Important Properties of ATP


The Structure and properties of water


Cells: - Prokaryote (bacterial cell) Structure


Cells: - Prokaryote cell division (Binary Fission)


Virology: - Basic Virus Structure

Virology: - Basic Viral Replication

Virology: - HIV Virus Structure, Infection of T-cells and graph interpretation

Virology: - HIV Viral Replication Cycle


Eukaryotes: The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

Chromosome structure


Eukaryotic Cell Division: - Mitosis

Practical Skills - Calculating the Mitotic index


Passive Diffusion (a.k.a Simple / Lipid Diffusion)

Facilitated Diffusion

Factors Affecting the Rate of Passive & Facilitated Diffusion


Osmosis (1) An Overview of Osmosis

Osmosis (2) Key Terms you must know, Understand and Use when explaining Osmosis

Osmosis and Aquaporins

Osmosis in Plant Cells & Stomatal regulation in terms of Osmosis

Factors Affecting the Rate of Osmosis


Immune system: - T-Cells and Antigens


Immune system response: -Phagocytosis


Immune system cells: -The Role of T-cells in the immune system response


Immune system cells: - The Role of B-Cells in the immune system response


Immune system: -Antibody Structure and Function


The ELISA test (the use of Antibodies in Medicine)


Gas Exchange in Insects: The insect tracheal system


Gas Exchange in plants: Gas exchange by the leaves of dicotyledonous plants (mesophyll and stomata)


Gas Exchange - Fish Gill Structure


Gas Exchange - Fish - The Counter Current Exchange Principle


Measuring Lung Function and graph interpretation

Lung Diseases - Tuberculosis (TB)


The Cardiovascular system a simple overview

The Cardiovascular system: - Arteries and Arterioles


The Cardiovascular system: - Capillaries


The Cardiovascular system: - Veins


The Cardiovascular system: - The Formation of Tissue Fluid


The Cardiovascular system: - The Structure of the mammalian Heart


The Cardiovascular system: - The Heart Valves

The Cardiovascular system: - The Cardiac cycle

The Cardiovascular system: - The Cardiac Cycle Graph interpretation


Cells and Organelles: - How DNA is Stored



Genetics: - Transcription & Translation: A Summary of Protein synthesis


Genetics: - Transcription (inc. RNA Splicing)

Genetics: - Defining Diploid.


Genetics and Cell Division: - Meiosis.


Genetics: - Gene Mutations.


Classification of Organisms - Phylogeny


Classification of Organisms - Taxonomy


Biodiversity and Statistics: -Analysing the effect of Agriculture on Biodiversity using Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient


Cell Organelles: -The Chloroplast - The site of Photosynthesis



Photosynthesis: - An Overview of Photosynthesis


Photosynthesis: - The Light Dependent Reactions


Photosynthesis - The Light Independent Reactions - aka - The Calvin Cycle


Cellular Respiration : - 2 types of Respiration | Anaerobic Respiration.


Population Genetics: - The Hardy-Weinberg Principle


Genetics: - What is Recombinant DNA


Genetics / DNA Technologies: Making cDNA using the Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase


Genetics / DNA Technologies: PCR - The Polymerase Chain Reactions (Amplifying DNA In Vitro using PCR)


Genetics: - Genetic Fingerprinting using Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs)

Genetics / DNA Technologies: - Electrophoresis


A Level Biology Super Notes Series:

Anaerobic V Aerobic Respiration





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